What is Diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease which your blood glucose or blood sugar levels are too high (hyperglycemia). Blood sugar elevation is commonly caused by defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both.

What is the cause?

Normally, the body breaks down the sugar and carbohydrates in the food that we eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose gives the cells the energy that it needs to continue functioning. However, the cell needs insulin, a hormone that acts as a key for entry of glucose into the cell and uses it for energy. However, with DM, your body is unable to produce enough insulin, does not use the insulin produced properly or combination of both.

Since the glucose is unable to be processed into the cells, it starts to build up in the blood. These tiny components clog up and create damages to the tiny vessels of your heart, eyes and /or nervous system. DM, when left untreated can cause serious health problems such as heart attack, blindness, kidney diseases, stroke and amputation.

Signs and symptoms:

Frequent urination usually at night by 4 to 5 times

Constant thirst

Sudden weight loss

Blurry vision

Extreme hunger

Lack of energy/sleepiness

Slow/poor wound healing


Frequent infection

Numb of tingling of the hands or feet


Risk Factors:



Elevated Cholesterol level

Family History



Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a type of disease that needs a lifetime management and care. No cure up to date has been discovered to combat the disease.

DM has three major types, namely, Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes

  • Previously called juvenile-onset Diabetes, because it often begins in childhood.
  • Also called insulin-dependent diabetes.
  • The body’s pancreas is damaged making it unable to produce insulin.
  • Result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that produces the insulin.


Type 2 Diabetes

  • Previously called as adult-onset diabetes, however, more kids and teenagers are getting affected by these diseases because of sedentary and unhealthy lifestyle.
  • The most common type of DM.
  • The body’s pancreas produce some insulin but the may not be enough or the body is resistant to it.
  • Obese individuals are of the high risk of getting affected with the said disease.
  • Have a higher risk of evolving into Type 1 DM once not properly managed.


Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your blood glucose level and take medicine if prescribed.